Measurements & Substitutions
Measurement Equivalents

1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 3 teaspoons (tsp)
1/16 cup (c) = 1 tablespoon
1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
1/6 cup = 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
1/3 cup = 5 tablespoons + 1 teaspoon
3/8 cup = 6 tablespoons
1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons
2/3 cup = 10 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
3/4 cup = 12 tablespoons
1 cup = 48 teaspoons
1 cup= 16 tablespoons
8 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 cup
1 pint (pt) = 2 cups
1 quart (qt) = 2 pints
4 cups = 1 quart
1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts
16 ounces (oz) =  1 pound (lb)

EMERGENCY SUBSTITUTIONS

For 1 Tbsp fresh herb use: 1/3 to 1/2 tsp dried herb (of the same kind)
For 1 clove garlic use: 1/8 tsp garlic powder
For 1 egg in baking use: 1 tsp cornstarch plus 1/4 cup water
For 1 whole egg use: 2 egg yolks plus 1 Tbsp water
For 1 cup whole fresh milk use: 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water, or 1/3 cup dry milk plus 1 cup water
For 1 cup buttermilk use: 1 cup plain yogurt, or 1 cup sour milk (4 tsp white vinegar or lemon juice plus milk to make 1 cup -- let sit for five minutes before using)
For 1 cup sour cream (in baking) use: 7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk plus 3 Tbsp butter
For 1 cup sour cream (in salad dressings, casseroles) use: 1 cup plain yogurt or 3/4 cup sour milk plus 1/3 cup butter
For 1 cup cream use: 1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk
For 1 cup corn syrup use: 2/3 cup granulated sugar plus 1/3 cup water
For 1 cup brown sugar use: 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 Tbsp molasses
For 1 3/4 cup confectioners sugar use: 1 cup granulated sugar, packed
For 1 cup margarine or butter (in baking or cooking) use: 1 cup hard shortening or 7/8 cup vegetable oil
For 1 square unsweetened chocolate use: 3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1 Tbsp oil
For 3/4 cup cracker crumbs use: 1 cup bread crumbs
For 1 cup cake flour, sifted use: 7/8 cup all purpose flour, sifted (1 cup minus 2 Tbsp)
For 1 tsp baking powder use: 1/3 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tarter, or 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/3 cup sour milk
For 1 Tbsp cornstarch for thickening use: 2 Tbsp flour
For 1 Tbsp flour for thickening use: 1 1/2 tsp corn flour, arrowroot, potato flour, or rice flour; or 2 tsp tapioca